Coriander belongs to the botanical genus of Coriandrum Sativum, commonly known as Cilantro, Chinese Parsley, Dhanya. This herb is an annual plant belonging to the family Apiaceae, which is associated with the Celery, Carrots, and Parsley family.
Coriander, a medicinal plant, was one of the first spices introduced to the British colonies in North America in 1670 and was first cultivated there by the early settlers. Coriander is native to southwest Asia, Southern Europe, and parts of Northern Africa.
It is a delicate plant that can grow up to just 20 inches in height. The leaves on the surface of the plant and the leaves at the base have some contrast traits. These leaves, which grow on stems, are as light as feathers.
The flowers that bloom on this herbaceous plant are white or very pale pink, like a small umbrella, which is asymmetrical. The petals of these flowers are elliptic to 5 mm to 6 mm long from the center.
The fruit, which is 3 mm to 5 mm in diameter, is often used as a spice or for extra flavor in other dishes. Although all parts of the plant are edible, their fresh leaves and dried seeds are often used primarily in all kinds of cooking for their medicinal properties.
Coriander is widely used in Indian, South Asian, Southeast Asian, Caucasian, Brazil, Middle Eastern, Central Asian, Mediterranean, Tex-Mex, Latin, Scandinavian, Chinese, Portuguese, African, and American cuisines.
The Phytochemicals in coriander give the food flavor and aroma just like many spices. The leaves are especially rich in Vitamin A, Vitamin C, and Vitamin K, as well as a moderate content of dietary minerals.
Despite seeds being generally low in vitamins, they are also rich in calcium, fiber, iron, selenium, manganese, and magnesium. Coriander is used as the main spice in international cuisine and is used as one of the main spices in soups, salsa, curry, and so on.
Coriander leaves are often used when they are green but their seeds are well dried in the sunlight and then used as a powder.
Many of those who use coriander are unaware of its medicinal properties and nutritional value, and they often use coriander for its exotic taste, unique aroma, and refreshing properties. However, indirectly these are good for their health.
Other Common Names
- Botanical Name : Coriandrum sativum
- English Name : Coriander
- Tamil Name : கொத்தமல்லி / Kottamalli
- Malayalam Name : മല്ലി /Malli
- Telugu Name : కొత్తిమీర / Kottimīra
- Hindi Name : धनिया / dhaniya
Table of Contents
Uses of Coriander In Ancient History
“Natural medicine is considered to be the most classic of all the fields in the world. But it is currently behind all the arts because people are ignorant of the benefits of natural medicine.” – Hippocrates.
Hippocrates was well aware of the diverse properties of coriander and recommended it not only as a medicine but also in his daily diet.
Although modern science proves its properties by conducting various studies on coriander, it is noteworthy that its leaves and seeds have been popular all over the world since ancient times.
There is also official evidence that Coriandrum Sativum was an important part of Ayurvedic medicine. Coriander was widely used for food and medicine not only in India but also in large countries like ancient Greece, Rome, and Egypt.
Compared to ancient times, the diversity of cultures and the use of herbs have changed over time so that people are less aware of its true properties.
The most interesting thing about coriander is that its seeds were found in the tomb of the Egyptian Baroque Ramses II, which was discovered during excavations.
Invaders who lived in the Bronze Age introduced coriander to the British people, and the British who lived there then mixed vinegar and cumin with coriander seeds and rubbed it on the meat, thus protecting the meat from external influences (bacteria, insects, fungi).
During the Renaissance, coriander was considered an aphrodisiac and was used to make romantic medicines. The ancient Chinese believed that immortality could be obtained by consuming coriander seeds.
Coriander in Ayurveda
According to Ayurveda, coriander seeds or seed powder are useful in curing stomach abnormalities such as constipation, indigestion, and abdominal pain. Charaka Samhita (Ayurvedic scriptures) said coriander as a Trushnaprashamana ( relieves from excessive thirst) and Sheetaprashmana (cures an extreme cold). Drinking coriander seed powder regularly by mixing it in warm water will give relief from cramps during the menstrual period. The ayurvedic properties of coriander are
|Taste (Rasa)||: Bitter (Tikta) and Astringent (Kashaya)|
|Properties (Guna)||: Light (Laghu) and Oily (Snigdha)|
|Potency (Virya)||: Hot (Ushna)|
|Metabolic taste (Vipaka)||: Sweet (Madhura)|
|Effects on dosha||: Balances all doshas, i.e., Vata (air), Pitta, and Kapha; further removes AMA from the body.|
Facts of Coriandrum Sativum
1. Coriander leaves contain polyphenolic flavonoids such as apigenin, quercetin, rhamnetin, and kaempferol, which act as antioxidants.
2. Coriander works effectively as a natural cleansing agent to help flush out toxic agents and heavy metals in the body.
3. This herb is a good source of minerals like Potassium, Iron, Manganese, Calcium, and Magnesium.
4. Not only minerals but also the leaves and seeds of this evergreen plant contain essential vitamins such as niacin, riboflavin, beta carotene, folic acid, vitamin-A, and vitamin-C.
5. Coriandrum Sativum contains many essential oils such as linalool, borneol, pinene, terpineol, cineole, dipentene, terpinolene, belladonna, and cymene, all of which are volatile.
6. Coriander, a source of vitamins, contains Vitamin-C which is a significant nutrient as it acts as a powerful natural antioxidant and supplies 30% of the daily vitamin-C requirement.
7. As coriander is one of the main and primary sources of vitamin K, its daily consumption provides about 258 percent of the recommended amount in full.
8. Vitamin-K, which is high in coriander, plays a strong role in bone function and reduces the impact of osteoporotic disease by promoting beneficial effects in bone mass structure.
9. Due to the high concentration of nutrients in coriander, they prevent the development of Alzheimer’s disease by controlling the neurological damage in the brain.
10. The essential oil contained in coriander seeds has played an important role in ancient medicine as it has antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, analgesic, deodorant, antifungal, digestive, diuretic, and stimulant properties.
11. Coriander acts as an excellent antibacterial agent and protects the body by fighting infections caused by harmful bacteria like Salmonella.
12. Coriander helps in relieving macular degeneration, eye aging, conjunctivitis, and various eye-related stresses.
Health Benefits of Coriander (Leaves + Seeds)
1. Lowers Blood Sugar Level
Type 2 diabetes is also considered lifelong diabetes because it inhibits the body’s production of insulin and does not allow enough insulin to enter the blood, which can increase blood sugar levels, causing a variety of damage.
The most important cause of type 2 diabetes is high blood sugar. Whole coriander seeds, as well as the oils and juices extracted from them, are all effective in lowering blood sugar levels.
But people taking medicines for diabetes should use coriander only on the advice of a doctor. Coriander is very active in lowering sugar levels so it is important to be very careful especially when consuming it by people with low blood sugar.
In general, the specific enzyme helps to separate excess sugar from the blood and excrete it in the urine, in this process coriander seeds promote the activity of this type of enzyme.
A recent study of coriander seeds was performed on mice with high blood sugar and obesity. The mice were given coriander seed extract at a dose of 20 mg per kg body weight or 9.1 mg per pound.
Exactly 6 hours later the blood samples of the rats were tested, in which the blood sugar level was reduced to be 4 mmol/L. At least proven to be in the ratio of / L. Doctors say this extract has the effect of a drug called Glibenclamide, which is prescribed for diabetics.
Another similar study was conducted on mice, which revealed that rats had lower blood sugar levels and increased insulin release. Therefore, diabetics should use coriander in their daily diet to maintain healthy insulin levels and blood sugar levels.
Also Read: Herbs for Diabetes
2. Effectively Fights with Infections
Coriander contains antimicrobial compounds that help fight various infections and effectively protect the body’s immune system.
Coriander contains a combination of chemical compounds that can fight deadly bacteria, such as Salmonella and (the study reports that these bacteria affect 1.2 million people a year in the United States), which causes life-threatening food poisoning.
For these kinds of reasons, it is highly recommended to add coriander to our daily diet. Coriander oil also has antimicrobial properties and can be used in any type of food.
A test-tube study found that coriander seeds, the most important ingredient in Indian spices, provide intensive treatment and cure for urinary tract infections known as UTIs in the medical field.
3. Helps in Healthy Heart Function
Excess water and sodium may increase blood pressure. Coriander leaf extract acts as a diuretic and helps in expelling excess water and sodium from the body which can effectively lower blood pressure.
Coriander leaves and seeds have a strong anti-sodium content, which is why it is recognized by various researchers as an excellent medicine and spice. Coriander drastically improves heart health by maintaining a balanced level of sodium in the body.
Studies show that people who consume whole seeds that naturally occur in coriander plants have lower rates of heart disease symptoms and side effects than those who consume store-bought coriander powder.
People who consume foods that have coriander compared to Western diets always have moderate levels of salt and sugar in their bodies.
4. Rich in Immune-Boosting Antioxidants
Studies have shown that a variety of antioxidants in coriander control the growth of free radicals and prevent cellular damage.
These include the antioxidant compounds of the herbal plants, such as quercetin, tocopherols, and terpinene, which have anti-inflammatory properties that fight inflammation in your body.
Furthermore, the results of the animal and test-tube study carried out with coriander reported that coriander has anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties, which may have beneficial effects on neuropathy.
A recent test-tube study showed that the antioxidants in the extract extracted from coriander seeds have anti-inflammatory properties and have the potential to fight breast, prostate, colon, and lung cancer cells.
The juice of coriander leaves helps in removing the toxins that have accumulated in the lungs of smokers as their leaves are high in antioxidants which are the best remedy for those suffering from smoking. In particular, they help to repair tissue damage to the lungs.
Also Read: Best Herbs to Boost Immune System
5. Promotes Flawless Digestion
The volatile essential oils extracted from coriander seeds regulate the different state of the body and promote peristaltic and digestive motility. A study was conducted on 32 participants (two groups) with an Irritable Bowel Syndrome called IBS.
One group was given 30 drops of coriander juice and another group was given a placebo three times a day at any rate for about 8 weeks.
Finally, the results showed that the swelling, discomfort, and abdominal pain in IBS patients who ingested coriander juice were significantly reduced.
Traditional Iranian Medicine uses the extract of this herb as a good appetite suppressant because of its ability to control appetite, a claim has been proven in studies conducted on rats.
6. Promotes Healthy Brain Function
Alzheimer’s, Multiple Sclerosis, and Parkinson’s are neurological diseases that can affect brain cells in particular and are associated with inflammation.
The intense anti-inflammatory properties of coriander protect the body from neurological diseases and act within the body to prevent inflammation.
In a study of mice with neurological diseases, they were given coriander extract. After a few days, the results showed that the antioxidant properties of the coriander healed the damage of the nerve cells in the rats and relieved the induced seizures in them.
A personal study of rats was conducted to detect the effects of Alzheimer’s disease on coriander. At the end of the study, it was revealed that the memory and cognition of the coriander juice ingested rats were improved.
Coriander leaves have the property of easily managing conditions like anxiety, fatigue, stress, headache, dizziness, fear.
An Allopathic medicine called Diazepam is commonly prescribed for anxiety and depression, but animal studies have shown that coriander juice is effective in reducing the symptoms of this condition.
7. Protects Skin From Infections
Coriander contains compounds that are used to treat various skin diseases and skin ailments, including mild rashes, dermatitis, red patches, and inflammation.
Therefore, skin problems can be solved by drinking coriander juice internally or by applying a paste of coriander leaves on the affected areas externally.
Diapers used in newborns can cause skin rashes, red patches, inflammation, psoriasis, etc. To protect the baby, various effects can be avoided by massaging the affected areas with coriander extract.
Coriander also relieves problems such as cellular damage, skin damage caused by UV B radiation, and premature skin aging. Yes, the antioxidants in coriander extract really eliminate all of the skin problems.
Besides, coriander leaf juice treats all skin conditions including oily skin, pigment deficiency, acne, dry skin without any side effects.
Also Read: Best Herbs for Skin
8. Aids in Weight Loss
Coriander leaves are rich in antioxidants and do not contain cholesterol, besides, these are considered an excellent source of dietary fiber. Coriander plays an important role in lowering LDL cholesterol, one of the risk factors for high blood pressure and heart disease.
Some animal and test-tube studies show that daily coriander consumption reduces bad cholesterol and increases good cholesterol levels called HDL.
Coriander seeds were given to mice with high LDL cholesterol, which eventually showed a significant decrease in LDL cholesterol and a significant increase in HDL cholesterol.
Coriander not only engages in the weight loss process but also helps those who are underweight to significantly increase their weight. In particular, coriander also helps to improve liver damages caused by excessive alcohol consumption.
Also Read: Herbs for weight loss
9. Easy to Add to Daily Diet
All parts of the medicinal coriander plant are edible. Although coriander seeds have a distinctive taste and aroma, their green leaves are as citrus-like, which is why it is customary to include the leaves in all meat dishes.
Unbroken whole seeds of coriander can be added to cooked lentils, fried vegetables, pickles, rubs, boiled vegetables, and so on. When the seeds are heated in oil or ghee, the seeds release their intense aroma.
Coriander seeds thus processed are used in flours and pastes. Coriander leaves are mainly used in western dishes like fresh tomato salsa, soup, cold pasta salads, Thai noodles. The paste made for processing salsa, meat, burritos, etc. is mixed with lemon juice, coconut milk, peanuts, garlic, and coriander.
Coriander helps to reduce the feeling of vomiting, dizziness, and nausea and provides immediate relief from chronic diarrhea caused by fungal infections.
Also in women, there are persistent mood swings due to hormones produced in the menstrual time, muscle cramps and mood swings are regulated by consuming coriander juice or coriander leaf powder. It is also recommended for women with severe bleeding.
Thyroid secretion can lead to weight gain in some people and weight loss in others, coriander can help control this condition and reduce excess weight.
Coriander is popular in controlling abnormal conditions including heartburn, loss of appetite, allergies, and skin reactions.
These effectively control diabetes and treat problems such as arthritis, stroke, arthritis, and bone loss. In addition, coriander helps greatly in improving eye health.
How to use coriander for hair?
- Add a half cup of water with crushed fresh coriander leaves and make a paste. Apply this paste to your scalp and leave it for 15 minutes and then wash it. Use this paste two times a week to rejuvenate your hair and to treat other hair issues.
- Prepare a coriander juice using finely chopped coriander leaves, water, and enough sugar. Drink this juice 3 to 4 days a week, in the afternoon to get healthy hair.
- Add crushed 2 tsp coriander seeds with 100 ml of olive or coconut oil. Leave the mixture for two weeks so that the content from coriander seed gets infused with the oil. Then, massage this oil throughout the scalp using your fingertips at night. Then shampoo your hair the next morning.
- Add a handful of fresh coriander in water and boil it for 15 to 20 minutes. Leave the mixture to cool, and then apply this decoction to the scalp, massage it for 10 minutes, and wash it with shampoo. Use this decoction thrice a week.
Nutrition Facts Of Coriander
The nutritional value of 100 grams of coriander leaves is listed here.
- Calcium – 67 mg
- Copper – 0.22 mg
- Iron – 1.77 mg
- Magnesium – 26 mg
- Manganese – 0.43 mg
- Phosphorus – 48 mg
- Potassium – 521 mg
- Selenium – 0.9 mcg
- Sodium – 46 mg
- Zinc – 0.5 mg
- Folate, DFE – 62 mcg
- Niacin – 1.11 mg
- Sugars – 0.87 g
- Fiber – 2.8 g
- Water – 92.21 g
- Vitamin A – 6748 IU
- Vitamin C – 27 mg
- Vitamin B6 – 0.15 mg
- Vitamin E – 2.5 mg
- Vitamin K – 310 mcg
- Riboflavin – 0.16 mg
- Thiamin – 0.07 mg
- Carotene, alpha – 36 mcg
- Carotene, beta – 3930 mcg
- Choline – 12.8 mg
- Lycopene – 0 mcg
- Protein – 2.1 g
- Fat – 0.4 g
- Carbohydrate – 3.7 g
Coriander plant gives two herbal raw materials, namely seeds and leaves. It is a fragrant herb that is used for many culinary purposes and health benefits. The essential oil and extracts prepared from this plant have antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-oxidative properties. It will decrease your blood sugar, fight against infections, and enhance heart, brain, and digestive health.
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