Tamil Name – வெள்ளை கடுகு – Vellai Kadugu
English Name – White Mustard
Telugu Name – తెల్ల ఆవాలు/Tella āvālu
Hindi Name – सफेद सरसों/saphed sarason
Malayalam Name – വെളുത്ത കടുക്/veḷutta kaṭuk
Mustards are winter crops. The plant grows up to 4-5 ft in height and offers golden yellow colored flowers. Their seeds are tiny and round with size about 1 mm in diameter are encased inside a fruit pod like a green pea pod.
There are three main varieties of mustard are grown worldwide for use.
White mustard seeds (Sinapis alba or Brassica alba): These are light straw-yellow colored and are a little bit larger than the other two varieties. White seeds exhibit mild pungency.
Black mustards (Brassica nigra): The seeds are primarily available in South Asia. The seeds are sharp and more pungent than other two types.
Brown mustards (Brassica juncea): The seeds are native to sub-Himalayan plains of Northern India.
Generally known for health benefiting spice, mustard seeds are very rich in phytonutrients, minerals, vitamins, and anti-oxidants.
It is one of the chief oilseeds, mustards are rich in calories; 100 g of seeds provide 508 calories. But, the seeds are made of quality proteins, essential oils, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber.
The seeds have essential oils as well as plant sterols. Some of the important sterols are namely brassicasterol, campesterol, sitosterol, avenasterol, and stigmasterol. Some other glucosinolate and fatty acids in these seeds are sinigrin, myrosin, erucic, eicosenoic, oleic, and palmitic acids.
Healthy benefits of mustard seeds
Mustard seeds called perceived as health benefiting spice, that seeds have rich phyto-nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and anti-oxidants.
100 g of mustards gives 4.733 mg of niacin (vitamin B-3).
The seeds have a small amount of vitamin anti-oxidants such as vitamins A, C, and vitamin K.